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New Brunswick, Canada
It is one of Canada's three territories and one of its ten provinces to call itself a province. As one of the three Maritime provinces, it's a member of both the Atlantic and the Canadian continents. It is the only province in Canada where English and French are spoken as the official languages.
North Quebec, to the east Nova Scotia, to the northeast Gulf of St. Lawrence and to the southeast Bay of Fundy, to the west US state of Maine, New Brunswick is a landlocked province in Canada. The Appalachian Mountains cover much of New Brunswick's northern half. As a result, the province experiences snowy winters and cool summers.
775,610 people call New Brunswick home. Its total land area is 72,908 square kilometers (28,150 square miles) (2021 census). Urbanization is unusually low in Canada, with fewer than half of Canadians choosing to live in big cities. Moncton and Saint John are the two largest cities in New Brunswick, while Fredericton serves as the provincial capital.
French and English were recognized as official languages of New Brunswick under the Official Languages Act of 1969. Provincial government services can be received by New Brunswick residents in their preferred language. Most of the population is bilingual in English and French. The majority of Acadians and the majority of the Acadian cultural region reside in New Brunswick. Acadian French is the French dialect spoken in New Brunswick, and there are seven regional accents to choose from.
The Maliseet and Mikmaq peoples were among the province's first settlers. The first New France colony, Acadia, was established in Port-Royal in 1604 with the arrival of the French. Acadia changed hands several times over the next 150 years as a result of numerous conflicts between France and the United Kingdom. In the period between 1755 and 1764, the British deported tens of thousands of Acadians, known as the Great Upheaval. Acadia became a British territory as a result of this and the Treaty of Paris. The colony of New Brunswick was established in 1784 following the arrival of many loyalists who had fled the American Revolution. New Brunswick prospered and grew rapidly in the early 1800s. In 1867, the province of New Brunswick made the decision to join Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada to form the United States of America (now Quebec and Ontario). Shipbuilding and lumbering declined after Confederation, and New England trade was disrupted by protectionism.
In the middle of the twentieth century, New Brunswick was one of Canada's poorest provinces; however, transfer payments helped to alleviate this situation. Rural and urban areas of the province have seen a 45-year high in eastward migration as people from Ontario and other parts of Canada move to the area. Approximately half of the province's GDP was made up of government services and public administration in 2002, while the remaining sectors included construction, manufacturing, and utilities, which accounted for 24% of the total, as well as real estate rental, which accounted for 11%, and wholesale and retail, which accounted for 5%, as well as agriculture, forestry, fishing, hunting, mining, and oil and gas extraction. The Irving Group of Companies owns the majority of New Brunswick's newspapers, making it a potent corporate concentration. Canadian GDP as a percentage of the province's output was CA$38.236 billion in 2019.
Over nine percent of the workforce is employed in some way by the tourism industry. These include Hopewell Rocks, Fundy National Park and Magnetic Hill, Kouchibouguac National Park, and Roosevelt Campibello International Park.
Geographical Description of New Brunswick
Canada's province of New Brunswick is roughly square in shape and is bounded on all four sides by the Atlantic Ocean, the Bay of Fundy, and Maine. The Chignecto Isthmus connects the province's southeast corner to Nova Scotia.
Because of glaciation, much of New Brunswick's uplands now have acidic, shallow soils that make it difficult to farm, but also allow for the growth of vast forests.
Despite its lower elevation and longer coastline, New Brunswick has a harsher climate than the other Maritime provinces. Winters along the coast of the Gulf of St. Lawrence are milder than those in the interior of the province. The far north of the province is characterized by a subarctic climate.
Climate change is evident in the increased frequency and intensity of winter thaws in New Brunswick, as well as the reduction of the snowpack by 25% to 50%. According to climate change projections, the global sea level is expected to rise another two feet by 2100 at a rate of about 30 centimeters per century.
Types of bedrock have ages ranging from 1 billion to 200 million years old.. The Acadian orogeny reached its peak in the Paleozoic, when the Ordovician ocean deposits were subjected to folding and igneous intrusion and eventually covered with lava.
New Brunswick was once part of the Maritimes Basin, a sedimentary basin located near the equator, approximately 340 million years ago, during the Carboniferous period. The Albert oil shale of southern New Brunswick was formed by the accumulation of sediments brought by rivers from the nearby highlands. The Windsor Sea was eventually formed by seawater from the Panthalassic Ocean infiltrating the basin. After this receded, conglomerates, sandstones, and shales formed. Iron in the beds oxidized during dry and wet periods, resulting in the rust coloration. The extreme tidal range of the Bay of Fundy sculpted these late Carboniferous rocks into the Hopewell Rocks.
During the early Triassic, as Pangea moved north, it was torn apart, resulting in the formation of the Bay of Fundy. Basalt columns were formed on Grand Manan when magma pushed through cracks.
The Appalachian Mountains completely encircle New Brunswick. Both the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy can be found in New Brunswick's rivers. Quebec and Maine are the states where the watersheds in question are located.
Ice sheets encased New Brunswick and the rest of the Maritime Peninsula during the last glacial period (the Wisconsinian glaciation). By pushing granite boulders from the Miramichi highlands to the south and east, it created U-shaped valleys in the Saint John and Nepisiguit River valleys. When the Wisconsin glaciation ended, these granite boulders were left as erratics, along with deposits like the eskers between Woodstock and St. George, which are now sources of sand and gravel.
Economy of New Brunswick
As of October 2017, there were 73,400 jobs in the goods-producing sector and 280,900 jobs in the services-producing sector. Manufacturing and construction employ the majority of workers in the goods-producing industries, whereas social assistance, trades, and health care employ the majority of service workers. Almost a quarter of the nation's wealth is held by the Irving Companies, a conglomerate founded by K. C. Irving and his family members. Large stakes in agriculture, forestry, food processing, freight transportation (including railroads and trucks), media, oil, and shipbuilding are held by these corporations.
Canada's largest export market is the United States, accounting for 92% of the province's $13 billion in international trade in 2014. A total of 63% of this came from refined petroleum, with the remainder coming from seafood, paper and wood products, and non-metallic minerals (chiefly potash). There were $1.6 billion worth of exports in 2016, with the majority going to the United States. Almost half of that was lobster. There's also sardines, crab, and herring to choose from, too. Tourists spent $441 million in New Brunswick in 2015, bringing in an additional $87 million in taxes.