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Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada
Atlantic Canada's easternmost province is Newfoundland and Labrador. With a total surface area of 405,212 square kilometers, it includes both Newfoundland and Labrador (156,500 sq mi). The population of the province is expected to reach 521,758 in 2021. The Avalon Peninsula is home to more than half of the population of Newfoundland and Labrador, making it one of the most densely populated areas in the province.
Newfoundland is the most linguistically homogeneous province in Canada, according to the 2016 census, with 97.0 percent of the population reporting English (Newfoundland English) as their primary language.
The extinct Beothuk language, Newfoundland French, and Newfoundland Irish were all spoken in Newfoundland at one time. Additionally, the indigenous tongues of Innu-aimun and Inuktitut are spoken in Labradoria's northernmost province.
Located in Newfoundland and Labrador, St. John's is the province's largest and most populous city, and it is Canada's twentieth-largest census metropolitan area. The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly and the Newfoundland and Labrador Court of Appeal are located in St. John's, the province's capital.
For many years before 1933, Newfoundland was referred to as the Dominion of Newfoundland, but the colony's independence was relinquished to Great Depression and World War I-related financial difficulties. On March 31, 1949, Newfoundland officially joined Canada as the country's tenth and final province. On December 6, 2001, the Canadian Constitution was amended to change the province's name from Newfoundland and Labrador to Newfoundland and Labrador.
Geographical description of Newfoundland and Labrador
N.L. is the easternmost province in Canada and sits on North America's eastern coast. Strait of Belle Isle separates Labrador, a large portion of the Canadian mainland, and Newfoundland, an Atlantic Ocean island, in the province. In addition, there are more than 7,000 small islands in the province.
There are three corners to Newfoundland. 400 kilometers (250 miles) on each side, and its total area is approximately 108,860 kilometers squared (42,030 sq mi). Excluding French possessions, the land area of Newfoundland is 111,390 km2 (43,010 sq mi). Newfoundland's latitude ranges from 46°36′N to 51°38′N.
There is a drainage divide along the western border of Labrador, which is roughly triangular in shape. Parts of Labrador drain into the Atlantic Ocean, while the rest of the province is in Quebec. The southernmost part of the border between Labrador and Quebec largely follows the 52nd latitude. Located at 60°22′N, Killiniq Island divides Labrador from Nunavut. Labrador and Greenland share a maritime border. 294,330 km2 (including small islands) is the land area of Labrador (113,640 sq mi). In terms of land area, Newfoundland and Labrador make up 4.06 percent of Canada's total (156,650 sq mi).
Economy of Newfoundland and Labrador
It's been a long time since the economy of Newfoundland and Labrador was this bad. In the early 1990s, the cod fishery collapsed, resulting in record unemployment rates and a population decline of about 60,000. Energy and natural resource booms have transformed the province's economy dramatically since the turn of the twenty-first century. The unemployment rate fell, while the population remained stable and grew moderately. As a result of its record surpluses, the province is no longer classified as a "have-not."
Growth in gross domestic product (GDP), exports, and employment all returned in 2010 following the recession of late 2000s. The province's capital expenditures grew by 23% in 2010 to C$6.2 billion. Compared to 2009, the GDP of $28.1 billion was an increase.
Government and politics of Newfoundland and Labrador
The executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government in Newfoundland and Labrador are all based on the monarchy, which is a form of constitutional monarchy. Queen Elizabeth II is the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom, as well as of the Commonwealth, the provinces of Canada, and the federal realm of Canada. Judy Foote, the current Lieutenant Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador, is the Queen's representative in the province.
In practice, the Executive Council, a committee of ministers elected by the unicameral, elected House of Assembly, governs the use of executive powers by the royal and viceroyal figures. The Council is chosen and chaired by the Premier of Newfoundland and Labrador, who is also the head of government. Typically, the lieutenant governor appoints the House of Assembly's majority or plurality party leader to be the premier following each general election. As part of an adversarial parliamentary system intended to hold the government accountable, the leader of the party with the second-highest number of seats typically becomes the Leader of Her Majesty's Loyal Opposition.
The 40 members of the House of Assembly (MHA) are chosen by a simple majority in their respective electoral districts. Four years after the last election, if the government loses a legislative vote of confidence and the lieutenant governor calls for general elections to be held, it must be done so. Historically, provincial politics have been dominated by the Liberal Party and the Progressive Conservative Party, respectively. It was only in 2011 that the New Democratic Party made a significant breakthrough and finished second in the popular vote, only a few points behind the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada.